Brazil's north-east coast and the volcanic island of Fernando de Noronha provide some of the country's best surfing. Northerly swells propagate down from the productive North Atlantic winter and light up Brazil's north facing beaches, reefs and points. Fernando de Noronha in particular fires due to its lack of continental shelf. The remainder of the year is dominated by windswell produced by the east/south-east trade winds. Surfing was introduced to the region by an unknown American who in 1928 paddled out at Copacabana Beach and remains extremely popular. Water temperatures remain a warm 25 to 27ºC or 77 to 81ºF year-round.